Trinity’s roots stem from the need to provide spiritual care for U.S. military personnel and consulate workers following World War II. In 1956 a group of American Lutherans living in the Rhine-Main area asked  the German church, die Dreieinigkeits Gemeinde (in English, Trinity Congregation) located near the Frankfurt Zoo, to begin regular Lutheran ministry in English. The first service for a handful of worshipers was held at the church a year later. The name Trinity Lutheran Church was selected to honor the then host congregation for their assistance.

Originally Trinity’s pastoral leadership came from The Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod (LCMS) and the Evangelical Lutheran Church of America (ELCA). In recent years this has changed so that today pastors are being provided solely by The Lutheran Church - Missouri Synod, through the Synod's office of International Mission.  As membership increased and the congregation outgrew its previous facilities, the decision was made in 1977 to move to a centrally located church building, the former Christus Immanuel Gemeinde at Nibelungenallee 54 where the congregation presently meets.

During the last five years the makeup of the church has changed substantially with the departure of most U.S. military from the region and a reduction in employees at the U.S. consulate in Frankfurt. Trinity is now a multi-cultural congregation with members coming from a wide range of countries such as India, China, the Philippines, various African countries, Poland, Germany, Italy, Malaysia, Singapore, Slovakia, Albania, as well as the U.S. Trinity ministers to Christians of many denominations wishing to worship in English.